The type of root system a corn plant has depends on the type of corn it is. It may be Fibrous to modified, Seminal, or Secondary. Its growing point in the ground is influenced by soil temperature. Nodal roots should be visible 1 to 1.5 inches below the soil surface.
Fibrous to modified root system
The corn plant develops two distinct root systems: a primary root system and a secondary root system. The primary root system is composed of several roots that grow outside the seed. These roots are called adventitious roots and nodal roots. Although the two root systems are not synonymous, they are both important in providing the plant with water, nutrients, and anchorage.
The fibrous root system develops early in plant development. It begins as a single root primordia (Rams) in the embryo and is characterized by many additional root meristems, which play an important role in soil exploration. The additional root meristems are activated soon after germination and are important for the physical support of the young plant. Together, these roots form a seminal root system that is characteristic of a particular corn cultivar. It is important to note, however, that considerable variation occurs among inbred lines.
Root architecture determines the efficiency of a crop in utilizing soil resources. In different soil profiles, different root systems can help a plant gain access to nutrients in the topsoil. Plants with root systems that promote topsoil foraging tend to have higher nutrient utilization rates. The fibrous to modified root system of corn plant is a good example of a root system that promotes topsoil foraging.
Cells in the apical meristem, located near the root tip, become several times longer than their original length. In addition, the tiny vacuoles in each cell merge into a single or two large vacuoles, which account for about 90% of the cellular volume. In addition to this, the entire root is made up of ground tissue and epidermal tissue.
Seminal root system
The seminal root system of a corn plant is a system of roots that begin growth directly from the seed. The length of the seminal roots varies according to the planting depth. They are present in the soil for 2.5 to 3.8 cm. These roots function throughout the corn plant’s life and are particularly important during the first few weeks of growth. However, as corn plants become older, their seminal root growth slows and becomes virtually non-existent by the V3 stage.
Corn plants grow slowly at first, but as they grow, their weight increases rapidly. They produce leaves first, then leaf sheaths, then stalks, husks, silks, and eventually, grain. The seminal root system only contributes a minimal amount to the plant’s weight gain during the first few weeks, and the amount of dry matter accumulation increases dramatically when conditions are favorable.
The seminal root system of a corn plant begins developing about four weeks after the plant emerges. It is the most important time in determining seed yield, as it determines the size of the kernels. However, damage or injury can decrease the number of kernels produced. Fortunately, the plant’s lateral seminal roots are widely distributed.
The seminal root system of a corn plant is responsible for stabilizing the plant, so it is essential to keep it moist. Without adequate moisture, corn plants will be vulnerable to wind damage. If they’re exposed to high winds, their leaves will flop over or lean, making them appear stunted.
The depth at which corn plants are planted can also affect the development of the root system. Deeper plantings increase the risk of crusting, which will delay emergence. Also, deep plantings require more energy and nutrients than shallow plantings, so the plant will need more energy during emergence.
Secondary root system
Corn has two main types of roots: the primary root system and the secondary root system. The primary root system develops shortly after the seedling emerges from the soil and helps the seedling establish itself and survive until the secondary root system forms. The primary root system supplies the plant with nutrients and water for the first few weeks after germination. Secondary roots develop from nodes in the plant, located above the crown region. The secondary roots are responsible for the plant’s growth and nutrient absorption during the rest of its life.
The secondary root system is made up of a number of smaller roots that branch out from the main roots. The total root area is considerable, far exceeding the area of the corn tops. These roots also serve as support for the plant. Therefore, corn is able to withstand a wide range of soil conditions.
The second set of roots of a corn plant develops around a week after the plant emerges. These roots are small and elongated and provide a boost to early plant growth. The cool soil and small amounts of nutrients also aid seedling growth. The application of fertilizer near the primary roots helps the plant absorb nutrients efficiently.
The primary root system is a network of nodal roots that branch off from the crown of the plant. The secondary root system is made up of smaller roots called brace roots. These roots function similar to the nodal roots and penetrate the soil to take up water and nutrients. The brace roots are needed to help the corn plant absorb water in some soil conditions, particularly in young plants.
The secondary root system of a corn plant includes several types of roots. The first type is the seminal root system, which is made up of the radicle, which is the first root to emerge from the seed. These roots are responsible for absorbing water and nutrients and anchoring the plant.
Effects of soil temperature on below-ground growing point
Temperature is one of the most important factors in the development of a corn plant, particularly in early leaf stages. Cold soils may increase the time between leaf stages, delay the formation of the tassel, and reduce nutrient availability. Although destructive frosts, wind, and hail will cause little impact on the below-ground growing point of corn, flooding at any time can kill a corn plant within days.
Soil temperature directly affects the microbial community in the soil and indirectly influences soil water content. Soil temperature also affects the rate of mineral weathering and evaporation. The most common soil organisms have specific ranges of activity and optimum temperatures for optimal performance.
Corn seeds require adequate moisture and a soil temperature of fifty degrees Fahrenheit or higher to germinate. Once germination has occurred, corn seedlings will emerge from the soil after a period of 100 to 150 growing degree days. If emergence is delayed, it may result in uneven growth and weak seedlings. It may also reduce the plant population.
Growing points, technically known as meristems, are the physiologically active areas in plants. These regions control cell division and differentiation. In corn, the apical meristem of the seedling initiates the primordia of all leaves. In fact, the embryo of the kernel develops four to five leaves before undergoing physiological maturation.
The temperature of the soil can affect corn seedlings in many ways. Seedlings can be exposed to frost at very early stages, which results in uneven growth and seedling death. Changing soil temperatures also affect corn seedling growth and mesocotyl development. In addition, seedlings can suffer from corkscrewing and leafing out underground. In addition, soil temperatures can decrease dramatically with a cold snap. Those changes can severely damage seedling growth, which results in reduced stand sizes and replanting costs.
Recovery after rainfall
Recovery after rainfall for corn plants will depend on several factors. One of those factors is how much damage the plant has suffered. If a corn plant suffered significant damage, it will likely need more time to recover than if it were healthy. However, there are some signs to look for. First, look for the main growing point area of the corn stalk. This is also called the apical meristem. It is the part of the stalk where cells divide most actively. In corn, this region is responsible for the development of all the leaves and the tassel.
Moreover, the amount of moisture in the soil will determine the severity of the crop’s damage. Plants that receive large amounts of moisture are vulnerable to ponding damage. Young corn plants can be submerged for extended periods, which may damage the plant. Fresh leaves should start appearing in three to five days after the water drains.
Heavy rains and overflowing creeks in the region have flooded many fields. The water may linger for several days and soak into the soil. Moreover, the duration and temperature of the floodwater will affect the survival of corn plants. While corn plants may survive for a few days at 15 degrees Celsius, they will die when the temperature is over 25 degrees Celsius.
A corn plant that is injured during a storm should be checked for signs of recovery after the event. It may lean or lodge without breaking its stalk, but in most cases, this type of damage is minimal. The plant should be allowed four days to regain its upright position. Then it will begin to re-establish its roots and re-orient its leaves.